What is Reciprocating Pump and How it Works

Reciprocating Pumps Introduction

Reciprocating pump are very important part of the ship’s
machinery and any other industry which is present in the world. High pressure
is the main characters of this pump and this high pressure output are being
used in places like starting of the engine or you can say the building of
pressure in the fluids. But there are used in limited application because they
require lots of maintenance. There are several reciprocating pump pdf books available in market.
These pumps are positive displacement pumps and
that is the reason they do not require any type of priming for their
functioning in the starting period of the pump. So let’s discuss about this
pump in much more detail.

Parts and design of the Reciprocating pump

Following are the parts of the centrifugal pump:
pumps, reciprocating pump
Reciprocating Pump
  1. A piston
  2. Liner
  3. Inlet and outlet valve
  4. Motor
  5. Shaft
  6. Relief valve
  7. Piston rings
These are some of the parts of the reciprocating pumps and
this works same like an I.C engine but there is no combustion in this but the
whole process is same as we have in the I.C engine.

Material Used in Making of the pump

Piston: Generally made of the mild steel
Liner: Made of Mild steel
Valves: There are also made of steel but a little improved
form which has the stiffness and less wear and tear are used and brass can also
be used.

Working principle of the reciprocating pump

The working of the reciprocating pump is very simple and
just like an I.C engine. First of all the piston has the function of providing
the suction force, so that the liquid can be lifted up or can be sucked in with
great force. After that comes the compression part which will impart the
required pressure energy to the fluids. In this part of the phase the piston has
to do a great work so that the liquid can be compressed properly and its
pressure can increase to the desired level. The inlet and the outlet valve open
at a certain pressure which is set by the manufacturer.
In the diagram above you can see that the piston is of a
single acting type which means it can suck from one side and transmit to the
same side only. But we can have the double reciprocating pump too which have
the function of the giving suction and discharge simultaneously in each stroke.
This pump can be used as the compressor also but for that we have to have a
good valve arrangement which can operate with good frequency.
Note: It is to be noted that the reciprocating pump is a
positive displacement pump which means that the fluid can only move in one direction
and can never reverse back. So due to this the pump is always started with the
outlet valve open otherwise the pressure will keep on building and this will
lead to rupture of the pipeline or even the pump itself. But if relief valve is
fitted then this pressure will come down.

Maintenances required on the reciprocating pump

There is no doubt that the reciprocating pump provides us
the pressure as much as we want but since there are so many moving parts in
this pump. So the wear and tear is a lot in this pump. So there are various
maintenances which are done with this pump in order to keep it working and also
for its long life. This is the reason why these pumps are limited in use and
only used in places where there is high suction and high pressure head is
required.  Sulzer pumps are very famous. Following are the maintenances which are carried on this pump:
  1. The piston rings which are used are always in direct contact
    with the liner body and hence they wear a lot, so we have to change them time
    to time.
  2. The valves used in this pump have to be taken care properly
    as it will lead leakage if they go bad, so they have to take care off while
    maintaining of the pump.
  3. The gland packing from where the shaft comes out of the pump
    has to be taken care in order to check its leakage.
  4. In coupling or the cross head of the pump by which the piston
    gets the liner motion also have to check for any type of misalignment and wear
    and tear.

Uses of reciprocating pump

There are various uses of the reciprocating pump and they
are as follows:
  1. The lubricating pump is a reciprocating pump and it supplies
    the lubrication oil to the main engine.
  2. The main bilge suction pump is also a reciprocating pump.
  3. For ballast they are sometimes used.

Advantages of Reciprocating pump

Advantages of the reciprocating pump are as given below:
  1. Gives high pressure at the outlet.
  2. Gives high suction lift.
  3. Priming is not required in this pump.
  4. They are used for air also.

Disadvantages of Reciprocating pump

Disadvantages of the reciprocating pump are given below:
  1. High wear and tear, so requires a lot maintenance
  2. The flow is not uniform, so we have to fit a bottle at both
  3. The flow is very less and cannot be used for high flow
  4. More heavy and bulky in shape.
  5. The initial cost is much more in this pump.


There is no doubt that these pumps are best when it comes to
providing us with high pressure. But as we have seen that there are lots of maintenance
which are required in this pump. So we can say these pumps are used in places
where there is a specific purpose for them to be used. So this was all about
the reciprocating pump.


You Might Like to Read These Posts Too:

Mark Eriscson

Love to write about topics related to maritime sector. Was born in sailor's family, so love to ride on those high seas. In free time i would like to go for a good sunbath and some soothing guitar music. Want to have my own boat one day.

4 thoughts on “What is Reciprocating Pump and How it Works

  • October 16, 2013 at 7:34 am

    connecting rod of the piston should be connected with crankshaft instead of cam.

    • November 29, 2013 at 2:58 am

      Yes it should be connected with crankshaft. But diagram is just showing the working. But cam Shaft can also be used to take power of crankshaft and then use to drive the pump. We cannot do this in main engines, but for other purposes we can do.

  • December 4, 2014 at 8:59 am

    Manufacturers of all type of broaching, spline gauges, Broaching machine, Broach Re-Sharpening Machine and Special Tools.

  • October 19, 2017 at 11:34 am

    I received more light on reciprocating pump.a good one.u blessed life


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Special Topics For You

Read these

What is Screw Pump and How it Works Introduction to Screw Pump Screw pump has a structure same like a screw. I mean the whole construction of the spindle is like a archimedes screw an...
Gear Pump Working, Construction, Maintenance Introduction  to Gear Pump Gear pump is among the important pumps, which are used on board ship. They are basically having gears, and these gears a...
Centrifugal Pump Working Principal, Maintenance Get to know about the centrifugal pumps. Types of Pumps Following are the main pumps which are used in any industry: 1) Centrifugal Pump 2) Recipr...
Symbols for Valves, Pumps and Electrical Equipment... When you are making drawings or representing a particular valve of piece of instrument, you cannot draw them every time. For making our life easy we...
error: Content is protected !!